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発表要旨

以前お知らせした研究会の発表要旨を作成しました。要旨の内容通りの発表ができるのか、今も準備中ですが、何とか当日までに形にしたいと思います。がんばります。

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東賢太朗(宮崎公立大学)
タイトル:「リスク化・動物化・再魔術化-リスク化社会における呪術と災因論」

【要旨】
 最近、世界はリスク化している。そういわれると、何だかよくわからないけれども、何か大変なことが起っているんだという気がしてならない。では、世界がリスク化するとは、一体どういうことなのだろうか。リスク化すると、これまでとは何が変わるのだろうか。そもそも、僕たちはリスク化という呼びかけに応えるべきなのか、また応えるとしたらどのように応えるべきであろうか。そんな問いに対して、文化人類学(者)は、何ができるのだろうか、できないのだろうか。
 リスク社会論者にとって、リスク化とは後期資本主義において特徴的なものだという。リスク社会(論)への批判には、リスク化が社会システムにおける信頼よりも不安を増大させ、我々から個としての生の意味を奪い去り、自己責任をうながす虚偽意識として機能しているといったものがある。そういった、リスク化における喪失の物語(物語の喪失?)を、同じく後期資本主義の特徴である「動物化」としてひとまずとらえてみたい。その上で、喪失と同時に進行する生成の物語として、これまた同じく後期資本主義社会に特徴的であろう「再魔術化」について考えてみたい。それならば、呪術や災因論についての人類学的な知と想像力を発動することは可能だろう。フレーザーやE=Pの古典的業績について、あるいはリスクと人類学についてほぼ唯一取り組んだメアリ・ダグラスについて、また近年のスピリチュアリティ研究やオカルト的近代論について、僕らが運用しうる資源は豊富であるから。ではそこに、リスク化に抗する、あるいはオルタナティヴとなりうる思想のポテンシャルは隠されていないだろうか。本発表では、以上のようないまだ熟さぬ思索を通じて、「人類学的リスク研究の開拓」に向けたささやかな試論を展開する。


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